- Spanish Civil War
- With the absorption of Ethiopia, Italy had reason to be a “satisfied” power that could be expected to sustain the status quo. But at the same time, Fascist doctrine insisted that it was “unfascist” to be “satisfied.” This division largely reflected the differences between “Fascists of the first hour” and the younger members of the party hierarchy. When Count Galeazzo Ciano, Benito Mussolini’s son-in-law, was suddenly elevated to be minister for foreign affairs in June 1936, an opportunity was presented to him to make his own mark. Pressed by the Vatican, which was in an uproar over the mistreatment and murder of priests by the revolutionary parties in Spain, Italy was soon drawn into the Spanish conflict. By October 1936, Italian ground troops were in Spain. The first troops sent were a “Legion” of blackshirt militia under the command of General Carlo Roatta. Mostly squadristi, they found combat even against the relatively shabbily armed and poorly disciplined Republican forces little to their liking. After a stinging defeat at Guadalajara in March 1937, Mussolini made success in Spain a matter of national prestige. The blackshirts were stiffened by an infusion of regular Italian army troops. By 1937, their number exceeded 70,000. The Spanish Civil War was also a watershed for the antifascist opposition. Many Italian partisans received their battlefield training on the rugged soil of Spain: Luigi Longo, Pietro Nenni, Carlo Rosselli, and at least 3,500 others all fought in Spain. At Guadalajara, Italians fought Italians, and the Garibaldi Battalion of the International Brigades played an important role in the Republic’s victory. The murder of the Rosselli brothers, Carlo and Nello, in Paris in 1937 was carried out in revenge for their activities in Spain. By March 1939, when Madrid fell to Francisco Franco, Italy had expended, according to official figures, about 8,500 million lire and lost nearly 4,000 dead and 12,000 wounded to help Franco’s cause. The Spanish war, coming on top of the involvement in Ethiopia, weakened Italy at the very moment that Mussolini was raising the rhetorical tone of his foreign policy ambitions.See also Squadrismo.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
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Spanish Civil War — n. the civil war in Spain (1936 39) … English World dictionary
Spanish Civil War — Spanish Civil War … Wikipedia
Spanish Civil War — the civil war in Spain 1936 39. * * * (1936–39) Military revolt against the government of Spain. After the 1936 elections produced a Popular Front government supported mainly by left wing parties, a military uprising began in garrison towns… … Universalium
Spanish Civil War — The Soviet intelligence security services played a critical role in Joseph Stalin’s strategy in the Spanish Civil War to create a Soviet satellite state run by a communist party absolutely loyal to Moscow. To achieve this end, the NKVD and GRU … Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence
Spanish Civil War — noun civil war in Spain in which Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government; during the war Spain became a battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries; 1936 1939 • Regions: ↑Spain, ↑Kingdom of Spain, ↑Espana •… … Useful english dictionary
Spanish Civil War — noun the civil war in Spain, lasting from 1936–39, in which the republican government (supported by the Comintern and other left wing and anarchist groups) was overthrown by the army led by General Franco (aided by fascist and other right wing… … Australian English dictionary
Spanish Civil War — Spanish Civ|il War, the a war fought in Spain, from 1936 to 1939, between the ↑right wing nationalists, led by General Franco, and the ↑left wing Republicans. Many people from other countries joined the International Brigade to help the… … Dictionary of contemporary English
Spanish Civil War, 1936 — The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) broke out with a military uprising in Morocco on July 17, triggered by events in Madrid. Within days, Spain was divided in two: a Republican or Loyalist Spain consisting of the Second Spanish Republic (within… … Wikipedia
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Spanish Civil War, 1937 — This article covers events of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) during 1937. In 1937, the Nationalists, under the leadership of Francisco Franco began to establish their dominance. An important element of support was their greater access to… … Wikipedia